While tissue from early-stage cancers typically doesn’t engraft well, just knowing that in vivo testing is an option can help you make informed decisions about the use of your tissue and even your treatment plan. For example, since recently irradiated tissue can’t be used to develop O-PDX models, you might ask your doctor to perform a biopsy before undergoing radiation treatment.

Once your oncologist determines your cancer is regional, distant, or has metastatic potential, it’s a good time to consider in vivo testing. All too often, patients come to us very late in their disease when they have treatment fatigue and are out of standard of care options. Imagine if every individual diagnosed with cancer knew in advance their best options for second- or third-line treatment.